systemd + vrf made easy

Have you ever wondered how to run a vrf unaware daemon against a certain vrf with systemd? Is your systemd service like this?

User=root
Execstart=ip vrf exec vrfred sudo -u user daemon args

This is definitely not ideal, there must be a better way, right?

How does ip vrf work?

Let’s take a look at https://github.com/shemminger/iproute2/blob/d4b01c0f4187e5c7c902223d96f845b8d21ce03c/ip/ipvrf.c#L414. Firstly ip vrf creates a croupv2 hierarchy like this:

 ├─vte-spawn-36ee85f1-688d-4317-b4cd-cc2fdd0654f1.scope
 │ ├─445391 bash
 │ ├─445494 ip vrf exec vrfred bash
 │ └─vrf
 │   └─vrfred
 │     ├─445495 bash

The vrf/vrfred path is created in your current cgroupv2 tree and your process is moved into it. But how does the vrf part work? It turns out that iproute2 attaches a small ebpf program to the vrfred cgroup which sets the required bind_to_device socket option for newly created sockets.

Fortunately, systemd also lets us load a bpf program against the cgroup of any unit with the BPFProgram=type:program-path option, see manual page systemd.resource-control(5) for more details. We only need to load the same ebpf bytecode into systemd in order to move the whole systemd unit into a certain vrf. However, systemd needs a pinned bpf object inside /sys/fs/bpf so that it can attach it to the cgroup (potentially many cgroups since you may have several services running against one vrf), whereas iproute2 does this all inside one binary to it doesn’t need that persistent bpf object. So naturally, I decided to take that bytecode out, load and pin it myself.

from ctypes import (CDLL, Structure, c_uint8, c_int16, c_int32, c_ulong,
                    c_int, c_char_p, byref, POINTER)
from pathlib import Path
from subprocess import run
from json import loads
from argparse import ArgumentParser
from sys import stderr

parser = ArgumentParser(description='pyvrf')
parser.add_argument('action', type=str, choices=['start', 'stop'], help='what to do')
parser.add_argument('ifname', type=str, help='interface name')
parser.add_argument('-q', '--quiet', action='store_true', help='be quiet')
args = parser.parse_args()

pin_path = Path("/sys/fs/bpf")
assert pin_path.is_dir()
pin_loc = pin_path / f"pyvrf_{args.ifname}"

if args.action == 'stop':
    assert pin_loc.exists()
    pin_loc.unlink()
    exit(0)

assert not pin_loc.exists()
p = run(['ip', '--json', 'link', 'show', 'dev', args.ifname], encoding='utf-8', capture_output=True)
if p.returncode:
    print('iproute2:', p.stderr.strip(), file=stderr)
    exit(1)
netif = loads(p.stdout)
assert len(netif) == 1 and netif[0]['ifname'] == args.ifname
idx = netif[0]['ifindex']

MAX_BPF_REG = 11
BPF_ALU64 = 0x07
BPF_MOV = 0xb0
BPF_STX = 0x03
BPF_MEM = 0x60
BPF_JMP = 0x05
BPF_EXIT = 0x90
BPF_X = 0x08
BPF_K = 0x00
BPF_SIZE = lambda i: i & 0x18 # define BPF_SIZE(code)  ((code) & 0x18)
BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK = 9
globals().update({f"BPF_REG_{i}": i for i in range(MAX_BPF_REG)})

class bpf_insn(Structure):
    _fields_ = [
        ("code", c_uint8),       # opcode
        ("dst_reg", c_uint8, 4), # dest register
        ("src_reg", c_uint8, 4), # source register
        ("off", c_int16),        # signed offset
        ("imm", c_int32),        # signed immediate constant
    ]

_prog = (
    # BPF_MOV64_REG(BPF_REG_6, BPF_REG_1)
    # { .code = BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOV | BPF_X, .dst_reg = BPF_REG_6, .src_reg = BPF_REG_1, .off = 0, .imm = 0 }
    bpf_insn(
        BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOV | BPF_X,
        BPF_REG_6,
        BPF_REG_1,
        0,
        0,
    ),
    # BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_3, idx)
    # { .code = BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOV | BPF_K, .dst_reg = BPF_REG_3, .src_reg = 0, .off = 0, .imm = idx }
    bpf_insn(
        BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOV | BPF_K,
        BPF_REG_3,
        0,
        0,
        idx,
    ),
    # BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_2, offsetof(struct bpf_sock, bound_dev_if))
    # { .code = BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOV | BPF_K, .dst_reg = BPF_REG_2, .src_reg = 0, .off = 0, .imm = __builtin_offsetof(struct bpf_sock, bound_dev_if) }
    bpf_insn(
        BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOV | BPF_K,
        BPF_REG_2,
        0,
        0,
        0, # offsetof(struct bpf_sock, bound_dev_if) = 0 (currently)
    ),
    # BPF_STX_MEM(BPF_W, BPF_REG_1, BPF_REG_3, offsetof(struct bpf_sock, bound_dev_if))
    # { .code = BPF_STX | BPF_SIZE(0x00) | BPF_MEM, .dst_reg = BPF_REG_1, .src_reg = BPF_REG_3, .off = __builtin_offsetof(struct bpf_sock, bound_dev_if), .imm = 0 }
    bpf_insn(
        BPF_STX | BPF_SIZE(0x00) | BPF_MEM,
        BPF_REG_1,
        BPF_REG_3,
        0,
        0, # offsetof(struct bpf_sock, bound_dev_if) = 0 (currently)
    ),
    # BPF_MOV64_IMM(BPF_REG_0, 1)
    # { .code = BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOV | BPF_K, .dst_reg = BPF_REG_0, .src_reg = 0, .off = 0, .imm = 1 }
    bpf_insn(
        BPF_ALU64 | BPF_MOV | BPF_K,
        BPF_REG_0,
        0,
        0,
        1,
    ),
    # BPF_EXIT_INSN()
    # { .code = BPF_JMP | BPF_EXIT, .dst_reg = 0, .src_reg = 0, .off = 0, .imm = 0 }
    bpf_insn(
        BPF_JMP | BPF_EXIT,
        0,
        0,
        0,
        0,
    ),
)
prog = (bpf_insn * len(_prog))(*_prog)

libbpf = CDLL('libbpf.so')
'''
int bpf_prog_load(enum bpf_prog_type prog_type,
			     const char *prog_name, const char *license,
			     const struct bpf_insn *insns, size_t insn_cnt,
			     const struct bpf_prog_load_opts *opts);
'''
bpf_prog_load_opts = c_int # nullptr, whatever
libbpf.bpf_prog_load.argtypes = [c_int, c_char_p, c_char_p, POINTER(bpf_insn), c_ulong, POINTER(bpf_prog_load_opts)]
libbpf.bpf_prog_load.restype = c_int
fd = libbpf.bpf_prog_load(
    BPF_PROG_TYPE_CGROUP_SOCK,
    b"pyvrf",
    b"GPL",
    byref(prog[0]),
    len(prog),
    None
)
if fd < 0:
    print(f"failed to load prog: libbpf returned {fd}", file=stderr)
    exit(1)
libbpf.bpf_obj_pin.argtypes = [c_int, c_char_p]
libbpf.bpf_obj_pin.restype = c_int
ret = libbpf.bpf_obj_pin(fd, str(pin_loc).encode('ascii'))
if ret:
    print(f"failed to pin prog at {pin_loc}: libbpf returned {ret}", file=stderr)
    exit(1)
if not args.quiet:
    print(f"BPFProgram=sock_create:{pin_loc}")

Above is the python program which takes a start/stop and an interface name as arguments. It depends on libbpf, which should also be a dependency of iproute2. You may wonder: why write it in python? Take a look at the following systemd service:

# /etc/systemd/system/[email protected]
[Unit]
Description=Load and unload persistent vrf bpf objects

[Service]
Type=simple
User=root
RemainAfterExit=true
StandardInput=data
StandardInputData=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ExecStart=/usr/bin/python3 -u - start %i -q
ExecStop=/usr/bin/python3 -u - stop %i -q

One magic service can do the trick, no more looking around the file system for a place to put your binary or script!

Then your service inside the vrf should look like this:

# /etc/systemd/system/somedaemon.service
# change "myvrfname" to your vrf interface name
[Unit]
Description=A random daemon
[email protected]
[email protected]

[Service]
Type=simple
DynamicUser=yes
ExecStart=/usr/bin/somedaemon

BPFProgram=sock_create:/sys/fs/bpf/pyvrf_myvrfname

MemoryDenyWriteExecute=yes
NoNewPrivileges=yes
PrivateDevices=yes
PrivateTmp=yes
ProtectProc=invisible
ProtectControlGroups=yes
ProtectHome=yes
ProtectHostname=yes
# And many other security options, wish you a GREEN OK in your `systemd-analyze security`!

If you would like to use it with systemd-run:

systemd-run -p BPFProgram=sock_create:/sys/fs/bpf/pyvrf_myvrfname ...

That’s it. The elegant way of using vrf with systemd.

Note: If your vrf interface is recreated, the interface ID is changed, thus requiring you to restart [email protected]

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Razu-san
Razu-san
2022-12-04 13:24

Thank you for your article 🙂